Monday, July 27, 2020

How the Need to Belong Influences Human Behavior

How the Need to Belong Influences Human Behavior Theories Social Psychology Print How the Need to Belong Influences Human Behavior and Motivation People need personal connections to feel accepted and supported By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Updated on October 06, 2019 Jade / Getty Images More in Theories Social Psychology Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology The need to belong, also often referred to as belongingness, refers to a human emotional need to affiliate with and be accepted by members of a group. This may include the need to belong to a peer group at school, to be accepted by co-workers, to be part of an athletic team, and to be part of a church group. The need to belong involves more than simply being acquainted with other people. It is instead centered on gaining acceptance, attention, and support from members of the group as well as providing the same attention to other members. How the Need to Belong Influences Behavior In social psychology, the need to belong is an intrinsic motivation to affiliate with others and be socially accepted. This need plays a role in a number of social phenomena such as self-presentation and social comparison. The need to belong to a group also can lead to changes in behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes as people strive to conform to the standards and norms of the group. For example, people often present themselves in a particular way in order to belong to a specific social group. For example, a new member of the high school football team might adopt the dress and mannerisms of the other members of the team in order to fit in with the rest of the group. People will also spend a great deal of time comparing themselves to other members of the group in order to determine how well they fit in. This social comparison might lead an individual to adopt some of the same behaviors and attitudes of the most prominent members of the group in order to conform and gain greater acceptance. So what inspires people to seek out specific groups? In many cases, the need to belong to certain social groups results from sharing some point of commonality. For example, teens who share the same taste in clothing, music and other interests might seek each other out to form friendships. In other instances, factors such as shared goals, socioeconomic status, religious beliefs, political beliefs, and pop culture interests can lead individuals to seek out groups that share these interests. Why the Need to Belong Is an Important Motivator Our need to belong is what drives us to seek out stable, long-lasting relationships with other people. It also motivates us to participate in social activities such as clubs, sports teams, religious groups, and community organizations. By belonging to a group, we feel as if we are a part of something bigger and more important than ourselves. In Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs, belongingness is part of one of his major needs that motivate human behavior. The hierarchy is usually portrayed as a pyramid, with more basic needs at the base and more complex needs near the peak. The need for love and belonging lie at the center of the pyramid as part of the social needs. While Maslow suggested that these needs were less important than the physiological and safety needs, he believed that the need for belonging helped people to experience companionship and acceptance through family, friends, and other relationships.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Slavery in Colonial America - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 864 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/05/14 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Slavery Essay Did you like this example? Slavery has been a significant issue in the United States from the colonial period to date as its legacy still lingers within the American civilizations. Slavery played a critical role in the development of the American economy especially during the colonial period. The white colonialists used blacks as slaves especially in their farms to provide labor (Blum 302). For instance, the Chesapeake tobacco industries thrived on the unbearable acts of slavery. Since the Chesapeake colonies in Maryland and Virginia were occupied during the earlier stages of the 17th century, it seemed hard to live for the colonists who arrived there first as they had a scarcity of labor as well as were continuously attacked by the Native Americans (Charlton 44). The efforts to use the Native Americans as slavery by the colonists failed to prompt them to start importing slaves from South America with the hope of staying longer and be more controllable to manage (Blum 310). Slave development in the colonial period subjected and forced the blacks to work denying them their rights but has been of significance as it shaped the American society socially, politically and economically as portrayed by its legacies today. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Slavery in Colonial America" essay for you Create order Experience of Slavery in American Society In the 17th century, white colonists purchased and sold the labor of both white and black servants. However, afterward, the enslaving of African Americans became more financially feasible as compared to dealing with whites as their terms of service was short (5-7 years) leading to phasing out of the white slavery (Oast 868). With the system proving to be profitable, the law and legal model started to leave the future administrations freedom to prioritize the economy over morality. Grant (159) asserts that African slaves were subjected to hard labor for long periods in the plantation fields, misery and poor working conditions by their slave masters. Besides, they were denied fundamental human rights and were exposed to mandatory punishments. Moreover, the existing law provided that slaves should be made poor therefore their pay was not sufficient to enable them to live a decent life (Blum 315). However, during the foundation of America after independence, the founding fathers did not include slavery in the American Constitution. This omission resulted in the continuity of oppression and segregation even after independence. This prompted to the start of the Civil War because the white Americans unfairly treated the Black Americans especially at places of work (Grant 160). A good example is the introduction of the Jim Crow laws which were based on discrimination and segregation of the blacks. However, through the struggles especially through demonstrations regarding the fight for justice and equality, several amendments have been made to the American Constitution regarding the rights of the black Americans within the United States (Charlton 49). These amendments, however, have recognized the Black Americans as well as freed them to take part in some of the national activities that they were initially denied. For instance, Black Americans were not entitled to view or participate in elections, but currently, they have a right to vote like other Americans. However, despite these advancements, the legacies regarding slavery are still in existence within the American civilizations (Oast 876). The Legacy of Slavery in America Despite the official abolishment of slavery in 1865 by the 13th Amendment in all American states, it took more than six decades for the African Americans to enjoy the same treatment as the whites as they were suffering unfairly and often subjected to hostility in public places especially in education (Berlin 1253). The 13th Amendment did not stop slavery as it turned out into terrorism and violence for decades and lynching of the black people and people of color. For instance, Myers (201) claims that a large number of individuals were brutalized and even burnt alive in courthouse squares. Even during the Civil Rights period, Africans were denied the right to participate in elections due to their color while the African kids would not school with white kids in same institutions due their being black. Besides, the millions of black Americans were denied compensation of their descendants exploitation and subjugation. This led to a massive wealth gap between white and black Americans (Lo ury 38). Moreover, Coates (56) asserts that the existence of some of the harsh treatment of blacks in the United States demonstrates the legacy of slavery in the country. For instance, the statements from the political leaders within the United States have been showing these legacies meaning that slavery is still within the American society and thus, the majority of the black Americans are not yet free from segregation and slavery. For example, the policy to separate children by the current US President Trump and families is a clear indication of Americas legacy of slavery (Berlin 1264). Conclusion To sum up, the Slave development in the colonial period subjected and forced the blacks to work denying them their rights but has been of significance as it shaped the American society socially, politically and economically as portrayed by its legacies today. However, despite the implementation of various amendments especially the 13th Amendment that abolished slavery, the act is still within the United States as it is portrayed by its leaders as well as treatment of the blacks in America thus revealing its legacy.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

American History The Emancipation Proclamation Essay

PÐ µÃ ¾plÐ µ in thÐ µ UnitÐ µd StatÐ µs dÐ ¾ havÐ µ natural rights. FÐ ¾r Ð µxamplÐ µ wÐ µ havÐ µ lifÐ µ, libÐ µrty and thÐ µ pursuit Ð ¾f happinÐ µss. WÐ µ havÐ µ thÐ µ right tÐ ¾ gÐ ¾vÐ µrn Ð ¾ursÐ µlvÐ µs. WÐ µ havÐ µ thÐ µ right tÐ ¾ prÐ ¾tÐ µct Ð ¾ursÐ µlvÐ µs frÐ ¾m Ð µnÐ µmiÐ µs, bÐ ¾th fÐ ¾rÐ µign dÐ ¾mÐ µstic. FÐ ¾rming AmÐ µrica tÐ ¾ a prÐ ¾fitablÐ µ natiÐ ¾n Ð ¾vÐ µr timÐ µ has nÐ µvÐ µr bÐ µÃ µn an Ð µasy mattÐ µr tÐ ¾ succÐ µssfully handlÐ µ. PÐ µrsÐ ¾nal mÐ ¾rals and Ð µthics wÐ µrÐ µ a big Ð ¾bstaclÐ µ tÐ ¾ dÐ µal with whÐ µn histÐ ¾rical dÐ ¾cumÐ µnts such as thÐ µ DÐ µclaratiÐ ¾n Ð ¾f IndÐ µpÐ µndÐ µncÐ µ and ThÐ µ CÐ ¾nstitutiÐ ¾n camÐ µ intÐ ¾ play thÐ µ dÐ µclaratiÐ ¾n Ð ¾f indÐ µpÐ µndÐ µncÐ µ was thÐ µ dÐ ¾cumÐ µnt that Ð ¾fficially dÐ µclarÐ µd indÐ µpÐ µndÐ µncÐ µ frÐ ¾m Britain. It was thÐ µ first timÐ µ thÐ µ AmÐ µrican cÐ ¾lÐ ¾nists sÐ µnt a lÐ µttÐ µr Ð ¾f griÐ µvancÐ µs tÐ ¾ thÐ µ king. ОnÐ µ Ð ¾f thÐ µsÐ µ difficult tÐ ¾pics that thÐ µ cÐ ¾nstitutiÐ ¾nal†¦show more content†¦SincÐ µ thÐ µ NÐ ¾rth did nÐ ¾t agrÐ µÃ µ with slavÐ µry, if an Ð µscapÐ µd slavÐ µ was fÐ ¾und thÐ µ nÐ ¾rthÐ µrnÐ µr did nÐ ¾t havÐ µ tÐ ¾ rÐ µturn thÐ µm. ThÐ µ nÐ ¾rth arguÐ µd just thÐ µ Ð ¾ppÐ ¾sitÐ µ: that slavÐ µ shÐ ¾uld bÐ µ cÐ ¾untÐ µd as Ð µqual as whitÐ µs, but Ð ¾nly in thÐ µ arÐ µa Ð ¾f rÐ µprÐ µsÐ µntatiÐ ¾n. ThÐ µ NÐ ¾rth had a divÐ µrsÐ µ viÐ µw Ð ¾f thÐ µ ThrÐ µÃ µ-Fifths CÐ ¾mprÐ ¾misÐ µ. ThÐ µy did nÐ ¾t want any slavÐ µs cÐ ¾untÐ µd in thÐ µ pÐ ¾pulatiÐ ¾n tÐ ¾tal bÐ µcausÐ µ thÐ µ slavÐ µs had nÐ ¾ vÐ ¾icÐ µ in gÐ ¾vÐ µrnmÐ µnt, thÐ µy did nÐ ¾t vÐ ¾tÐ µ Ð ¾r havÐ µ any rights. ThÐ µ NÐ ¾rth alsÐ ¾ fÐ µlt that sincÐ µ that thÐ µ SÐ ¾uthÐ µrnÐ µrs bÐ µliÐ µvÐ µd that thÐ µir slavÐ µs wÐ µrÐ µ thÐ µir prÐ ¾pÐ µrty nÐ ¾t pÐ µÃ ¾plÐ µ. HÐ ¾wÐ µvÐ µr, thÐ µ sÐ ¾uth prÐ µdÐ ¾minantly did nÐ ¾t sÐ µÃ µ African AmÐ µrican slavÐ µs as Ð µqual Ð ¾utsidÐ µ Ð ¾f strictly cÐ ¾unting thÐ µm as pÐ µÃ ¾plÐ µ fÐ ¾r rÐ µprÐ µsÐ µntatiÐ ¾n. ThÐ µy wÐ µrÐ µ still supprÐ µssÐ µd tÐ ¾ vÐ ¾tÐ µ fÐ ¾r thÐ µir dÐ µlÐ µgatÐ µs that rÐ µprÐ µsÐ µntÐ µd his Ð ¾r hÐ µr statÐ µ. AlsÐ ¾, thÐ µy wÐ µrÐ µ nÐ ¾t givÐ µn as nÐ µarly as many rights as frÐ µÃ µ whitÐ µ malÐ µs wÐ µrÐ µ. ThrÐ µÃ µ fifths Ð ¾f Ð µach statÐ µs slavÐ µ pÐ ¾pulatiÐ ¾n wÐ ¾uld bÐ µ cÐ ¾untÐ µd in Ð µach statÐ µs tax burdÐ µn and rÐ µprÐ µsÐ µntatiÐ ¾n in thÐ µ HÐ ¾usÐ µ Ð ¾f RÐ µprÐ µsÐ µntativÐ µs. LincÐ ¾ln cÐ ¾uld nÐ ¾t Ð µnfÐ ¾rcÐ µ his prÐ ¾misÐ µs at thÐ µ timÐ µ and wÐ ¾uldnt bÐ µ ablÐ µ tÐ ¾ unlÐ µss thÐ µ NÐ ¾rth Ð µxpÐ µriÐ µncÐ µd military succÐ µss in battlÐ µ. This mÐ µant thÐ µ ЕmancipatiÐ ¾n PrÐ ¾clamatiÐ ¾n didn’t affÐ µct thÐ µ status Ð ¾f slavÐ µs. Blacks that livÐ µd in thÐ µ NÐ ¾rth alrÐ µady wÐ µrÐ µ frÐ µÃ µ mÐ µn bÐ µfÐ ¾rÐ µ thÐ µ PrÐ ¾clamatiÐ ¾n, as thÐ ¾sÐ µ statÐ µs had Ð ¾utlawÐ µd slavÐ µry bÐ µfÐ ¾rÐ µ. ThÐ µ prÐ ¾clamatiÐ ¾n gavÐ µ thÐ µ UnitÐ µd StatÐ µs thÐ µ mÐ ¾ral advantagÐ µ in thÐ µ war. Еngland had takÐ µn thÐ µ lÐ µad in Ð ¾utlawing and Ð µndingShow MoreRelatedThe Gettysburg Address as an American Tipping Point850 Words   |  4 PagesEmancipation Proclamation as a Tipping Point Without slavery, the rebellion could never have existed. Without slavery, it could not continue† (Lincoln). The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 marked the most decisive points of the Civil War, and of American history as a whole. With the stroke of his pen, Lincoln expanded the powers of the president, redefined the Unions goals in the civil war, and fortified the Republicans moral base and prominence for years to come, while rekindling morale forRead MoreThe Battle Of Antietam By Robert E. Lee1046 Words   |  5 PagesThe Future of America, its citizens, and its enslaved people hinged on the outcome of the American Civil War. The Civil War was fought between the North (Union) and the south. The Battle of Antietam took place on September 17, 1862 near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and it was the bloodiest day in American history. Before the battle, the confederacy had a better chance of winning the war. Conflict arose between McClellan and Robert E. Lee which sparked the invasion o f the north and the beginning of a longRead MoreTaking a Look at the Enmancipation Proclamation656 Words   |  3 PagesThe Emancipation proclamation is a document that forever changed the outlook on slavery in the United States forever. The document drafted and signed by the 16th President of the United States of America would be the biggest accomplishment of Presidents Lincolns term in office as well changing the focus of the civil war. 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Despite congress being against his wishes, he did not waiver in what he believed in. This courage is very difficult to find even to this day. This was a time when the country was at war. President Lincoln had just lost his son Willie to typhoid in February of 1862. (CivilWar.Org Staff 2017) When everything seemed to be going wrong President Lincoln committedRead MoreAmerican Civil War Research Paper1118 Words   |  5 PagesThe deadliest war in American history is known as the American Civil War killing nearly 620,000 soldiers and a mass amount of civilians. The War Between the States was fought between Southern slave states and the United States federal government. Southern states formed a group called the Confederacy, which went against the beliefs of the Union. Jefferson Davis of the Confederate States of America and Abraham Lincoln sought different views on slavery. Lincoln belie ved that all slaves should beRead MoreAbraham Lincoln s Emancipation Proclamation859 Words   |  4 PagesThe Emancipation Proclamation Although Abraham Lincoln produced numerous timeless events in the history of the United States of America, perhaps none more effective as the Emancipation Proclamation. The innovative and impactful Emancipation Proclamation consisted of two executive orders issued by President Lincoln. The first order was issued on September 22, 1862 and gave freedom to all slaves in the Confederate States of America that did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863. One hundredRead MoreSignificance And Impact Of The Emancipation Proclamation1658 Words   |  7 PagesJonathan E. Luzniak Mr. Deeb U.S. History 1A 5 May, 2015 Significance and Impact of the Emancipation Proclamation Abraham Lincoln once said, A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half-slave and half-free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved - I do not expect the house to fall - but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other. (Lincoln s House-Divided Speech in Springfield, Illinois,Read MoreAbraham Lincoln Was Not A Friend Of Africans1343 Words   |  6 PagesTopic: Abraham Lincoln was not a friend of Africans Many American believe President Abraham Lincoln was a friend of Africans and even suggest that he freed the slave which is far from the truth. Although Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation made history the controversy remains as to the true reason of the Emancipation Proclamation. Many historian now believe that Emancipation Proclamation was design to protect the union and not free the slaves. It is true that Lincoln thought slaveryRead MoreThe Effects Of The Conscription Act And Emancipation Proclamation1184 Words   |  5 Pagesthe nearest lamp post, and others shot†. This carnage was predominantly sparked by the ratification of the Conscription Act and the mobility of freed slaves due to the Emancipation Proclamation. The Irish-Americans and African-Americans were competing for jobs; resulting in the biggest civil protest during war times in American history. The New York City Draft Riots of 1863, as stated by Albon P. Man Jr’s journal article, â€Å"Labor Competition and the New York Draft Riots of 1863†, left 1,200 to 1,500

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Utilization of Organic Waste Materials for Biofuel Production Free Essays

The Utilization of Organic Waste Materials for Biofuel Production A Research Paper Presented to Professor Janet Clemente Mapua Institute of Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements in English for Academic Purposes 2 (ENG11) by Hazel Joy H. Arellano Al Joseph R. Jimeno February 2012 Abstract The increasing criticism of the first-generation biofuel has raised the potential of the so-called second-generation biofuel. We will write a custom essay sample on The Utilization of Organic Waste Materials for Biofuel Production or any similar topic only for you Order Now These include any organic industrial, commercial, domestic and agricultural wastes. These residues and by-products is a potential feedstock in the production of this biofuel. This paper will attempt to determine the different potential impacts of the second generation biofuel on the society compare to the first generation biofuel and what would be the possible outcome if this was continuously used. An interview was conducted at the Department of Biomass, DOE, on the director of the said department, Andresito Ulgado. It contributed a lot on the progress of this research. As we go through this research, biofuel from organic waste materials has potential on economic, environment and social impact. This really provides benefits on the economy of a country and reduces dependency of foreign fuels. In terms of the environmental impact, these biofuels doesn’t hundred percent lessen the environmental problems but rather it could develop new environmental problems. The quality of the soil may be greatly affected and may lead to soil erosion and a lot of water can be wasted because crops plantation demands a lot of water. But this biofuel can lessen greenhouse gases and CO2. On social impact, these biofuel could provide and opened new jobs like biomass transportation, biomass collection and a lot, but jobs are limited. In other words, these biofuel has positive impact on the economy of a country and socially but not contribute hundred percent on the environment. To the future researchers, these topic is a great thing to research on, maybe they could research on how extensive these biofuels from organic waste materials is used in a specific country or in the world. † †¦ we generate a lot of waste and this is a potential feedstock for biofuel production†¦ But, I believe this is a potential one. † – A. Ulgado The production of biofuels has been rapidly increasing over the last decades but these biofuels has raised some important concerns. In particular, first generation biofuels from staple foods has been very controversial regarding its negative impact in the society, blamed to cause deforestation, displacement of food crops and increases the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. For biofuels to be truly sustainable they need to be produce without affecting the food production. So, scientists are developing fuel out of anything, from organic waste and rotting garbage. These organic wastes are potential feedstock for second generation biofuels. Sustainable biofuel from organic waste materials will provide benefits compared to first-generation biofuels. These are expected to provide advantages and implications in the economy, environment and social life. The researchers came with this stand because of the continuous unprecedented high price of fossil fuels and the controversies that first-generation biofuels faced, which has a negative effect on the society. As Andresito Ulgado, director of the Department of Biomass, stated, we generate a lot of waste and from this, we can produce biofuels. But since these second-generation biofuels are not yet commercialized, there are possibilities that these are less effective compared to fossil fuels and have limited applications. These biofuels are seen as a commercial risk because these will require complex logistics system and good infrastructure. Financing these projects would be very costly for it will require ten times as much capital as a first generation plant of the same capacity. This research paper will focus on the benefits of biofuel from organic waste materials on economy, environment and social life. The researchers will find out why these biofuels are expected to resolve all the problems that the first generation biofuel have. The biofuel gives us sustainable alternatives and is renewable. In the next twenty-five years, it is believe that the world market, which is our primary source of imported fuel like fossil fuel will run out soon. That is why biofuels in the form of liquid fuels derive from plant materials are entering the market driven by factors such as oil price hikes and the need for increased energy security. However, many of this biofuel that are currently supplied has been criticized for the adverse impacts on the natural environment, food security, and land use-these are the first generation biofuels or the biofuel from staple foods. Most of our neighboring countries use biofuel from staple foods like corns and rice. But in the Philippines, the Biofuel Act of 2006, specifically says that corn, rice, and other staple foods cannot be used for biofuel production instead sugarcane and coconut oil is used because of the surplus production of oil and sugar here in the Philippines. Due to the increasing criticism of the sustainability of many first generation biofuel, scientists are trying to make better use of crop residues and by-products by converting into the next generation biofuel. These includes any solid, liquid, and gaseous fuel produced either directly from plants or indirectly from organic, industrial, commercial, domestic, or agricultural waste- or the so-called Second Generation Biofuel. The challenge is to support the biofuel development including the development of new cellulose technologies with the responsible policies and economic instruments to help ensure that biofuel commercialization is sustainable. These biofuels will not only help the earth reduce greenhouse gases, toxics, and pollution but it will also help our economic status. Utilizing the second generation biofuel will resolve the issue regarding on food production, provides energy security, reduce dependence on foreign source of oil and other fuels, and economic boost for agriculture and industry. Over the last decade, the production of the first generation biofuel has been questioned about its negative impact on food production because it consumes almost three-fourths of the agriculture sector, which is tending to use for food plantation. Due to the demand of land, food production has greatly affected resulting to food shortage and price hikes. But not as like as the first generation biofuel, the second generation has nothing to do with the deflation on food production because all it need is the residues from the crops harvested, basically the crops will be still useful especially on foods. When agriculture land is only tend for food production therefore there would be a large-scale production of crops and the more crops that is being produced, the more residues can be get from it in order to produce a large-scale production of biofuels, too. A large-scale production of a country will ensure and provide energy security within its territory which lessens worriness. Replacing petroleum because of its prices on the rise, with a renewable energy source will reduce from importing these oil products. Biofuel were seen as substitutes for gasoline and petroleum-based diesel, the idea that these can reduce dependency on fossil fuels has led the government to promote it. In the Philippines, two percent of biodiesel were added to diesel and ten percent of bioethanol in gasoline which only proves that the utilization of biofuel reduces the dependency of the country on fossil fuel. As Andresito Ulgado, director of the Department of Biomass, DOE mentioned that the government has been looking at increasing the blend of biodiesel to three to five percent and twenty percent of bioethanol. He emphasized that there are considerations need to be considered especially to those who use vehicles twenty years older. There are cases in which these vehicles cannot use high blend of biofuel. However, the government is looking forward at maximizing biofuels so that the country can minimize its dependency on imported fuels. And importing fuel on other countries has fluctuated dramatically in most emerging and developing countries over the past several years. Thus, if use in the domestic markets the second generation could contribute to reduced expenditures for imports. In this case we can save a lot of our foreign currency savings and if we exported some of our biofuel products to other countries especially for those countries which really uses biofuels, these could really boost our economy, which figuratively means that there are more jobs to be offered, from the farming industry to the transportation production. Biofuels before had faced controversies regarding its negative impact on the environment. A new study by economists at Oregon State University questions the cost-effectiveness of biofuels. Bill Jaeger, the lead author of the study, points out that the biofuels increase the greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels were initially seen as a solution to energy and environmental problems because the carbon dioxide that’s emitted when they’re burned is equivalent to what they had absorbed from the atmosphere when the crops were growing. Therefore, biofuels were assumed to add little or no carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. But the bigger picture is more complex in part because biofuels are produced and transported using fossil fuels. Depending on the feedstock choice and the cultivation techniques, second-generation biofuels production utilizes wastes and residues. These include organic waste materials which are generated from agricultural facilities, forestry mills and in urban areas. In urban areas, organic wastes include portions of municipal solid waste, grass clippings and land clearing activities. Second-generation biofuels provide environmental impact depending on different aspects: land, water, climate change and biodiversity. Lands before were used for production of crops intended for biofuels causing negative impacts like affecting food production and rising food prices. Unlike first-generation biofuels, utilizing organic wastes and residues has a minimal direct impact on food production for it will no longer require lands. Furthermore, it will help lessens the problems of disposing. These will also reduce the problems in clearing fields. Clearing of fields, which requires burning will not be a problem anymore because the waste will become feedstock for the production of fuel. Therefore, these will cause significant reductions in air pollution. In some soil, removal of waste and residue can be sustainable and beneficial for some crops as it may help control pests and diseases, increase soil temperature in spring facilitating spring germination (Andrews, 2008). However, removing residues on soil could reduce the soil quality, promote erosion and lead to a loss of carbon, which, in turn, low production of crops. Future production of second-generation biofuels will also have an impact on water. The increasing demands for biofuel produced from organic waste will increase the pressure on clean water resources. Since there is a demand for biofuel, then there is also a demand for organic waste materials and most of the wastes are produced from crops. These will require large quantities of water to grow certain feedstock. The use of residues may have negative or positive impacts on biodiversity. As compared to the first-generation biofuels, the use of agricultural and forestry wastes are expected to have a lower impact on biodiversity. However, these will reduce the amount of decaying wood and could thus cause reductions in habitats and disturbance of wildlife due to increased forest access. There is also a possibility that native forests will be turned into plantation to increase the supply, which in turn, reduces plant biodiversity. In terms of reducing lifecycle carbon emissions, second-generation biofuels appear to have higher greenhouse gas mitigation compared to first-generation. These second-generation biofuels could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 90% relative to fossil fuels. However, these results have been calculated for theoretical biofuel production concepts that are only just at the pilot /demonstration stage and not yet operating on a commercial stage (OECD, 2008). Another impact of these second generation biofuels to the society is its potential to provide livelihood to mankind. Most commentators believe that the development of bioenergy industry in a region will provide jobs, and that bioenergy and biofuels enterprises can become important opportunities for improving rural economies in both developed and developing countries. Job creation and regional growth are considered as two of the main social driven for the implementation of biofuel project. For second generation biofuel, there are new job opportunities along the entire pathway from biomass production or collection, to biomass transport, biomass handling, conversion and finally product distribution. In Europe, predictions estimate that the increase in energy provided from biofuel production could result in the creation of over 515,000 new jobs by 2020 taking into account the direct, and indirect subsidy effects of employment, and the jobs displaced in conventional energy technologies. Selling forestry by-products or residues would be beneficial for the 12 million people that live in or near to the forests of Mexico. The added value to forestry products could also reduce the high deforestation rate in Mexico, since deforestation often results from the absence of economic alternatives. IEA, 2010) Though there are a lot of new jobs opened, some of these are limited. Like for example, the collection of agricultural and forestry residue could also be done by the same workers involved in the main agricultural and forestry products. Downstream processes like biomass transport and conversion may offer more jobs considering the increasing demand of biomass for biofuel production but thes e will require more qualified workers given the complexity of second-generation biofuel technology. Skilled engineers to manage plant operations and oversee complex production processes are relatively difficult to find since unskilled and cheap labour force is abundant in developing countries. Just like what Andresito Ulgado said, if we will be reviving our rural economy, there will be an effect not only to those who are working in the biofuel production facility but same as through to the people around us because there will be a triggering effect. An example is if there is a plant in a certain area then there would be also a demand for that certain product in that particular production facility. If there would be a biofuel plantation in a certain area then there is a demand for fuel in which more job opportunities can be offered. Biofuels have been receiving greater attention in the recent years from researchers, industrialists, environmentalists, and national governments across the world. But over the past decades linkages between biofuels from staple foods and agriculture market, same as through to the environment has been analysed. Therefore scientists are trying to produce the next generation biofuel out of organic waste to meet the high demand of the fuel consumers. This will be a great help since the world market, where we are import our fuel, will be run out soon. These biofuels from organic waste is not just an alternative source of energy but can also contribute to our economic status, environment and even provide livelihood for the people. Economic impacts include reducing dependency on fossil fuels, provide energy security, generate foreign savings, economic boost and resolve issues regarding the food production. They appear to have higher greenhouse gas mitigation compared to first-generation biofuels. Thus, these fuels can reduce the lifecycle carbon emission. However, in some aspects of the environment, these have negative impacts in which utilizing organic waste lessens the fertility of soil, consumes a large quantity of water and affects the biodiversity. For second generation biofuel, there are new jobs along the entire pathway from biomass production or collection, to biomass transport, biomass handling, conversion and finally product distribution. More jobs can be offered since there is a demand in the supply of residues and wastes. But there are some cases in which more skilled and qualified workers are needed to manage the biofuel plantation given the complexity of second-generation biofuel technologies. We generate a lot of organic waste and residues and these are available as feedstock for biofuel production. There are possibilities that these will enter the domestic market on the next twenty years. The reason why it was not yet commercialized is because of the expensive technology that will be used in converting these wastes into a more useful one. Another factor that are seen into this biofuel is it helps on our economic status especially on food production and in saving up more foreign currency because we will no longer importing fossil fuels from other countries and can boost our agriculture and industry. On environment that can reduce CO2 and can provide new livelihood to other people. In other words, these biofuel will result into a more progress, more eco-friendly and more stable world. Utilizing these will reduce issues on food production and greenhouse gases, providing benefits in the society. Therefore, sustainable biofuel from organic waste will provide and probably will provide the source of energy in the future. REFERENCES Biofuel for transport: global potential and implication for sustainable and agriculture London; Sterling VA: Earthscan, c2007 Biofuel John Tabak PH. d 2009 Biofuel Economics in a Setting of Multiple Objectives and Unintended Consequences William K. Jaeger and Thorsten M. Egelkraut Oregon State University (2011) Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels Anselm Eisentraut 2010 February Second-Generation Biofuels Miguel A. Carriquiry, Xiaodong Du, GovindaTimilsina The World Bank Development Research Group Environment and Energy Team August 2019 From 1st to 2nd-Generation Biofuel Technologies Ralph Sims, Michael Taylor Jack Saddler, WarenMabee c OECD/IEA, November 2008 Second Generation Biofuels – Greenergy Perspectives March 2011 http://www. iea. rg/papers/2010/second_generation_biofuels. pdf http://www. thebrokeronline. eu/Articles/Driving-on-organic-waste Biofuel in Perspective W. Soetaert and Erick J. Vandame 2008 Sustainable Production of Cellulosic Feedstock for biofuels in the USA Matthew T. Carr Jane R. Tettubars 2008 Biomass Digestive to methane in Agriculture: A Sucessful Pathway for the Production and Waste Treatment Worldwide P. Weiland W. Verstraete A. Van Haardel 2008 Biofuels Act Review Urged (journ al) www. iea. org/papers/2010/second gen. biofuel. pdf How to cite The Utilization of Organic Waste Materials for Biofuel Production, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Nestlé Ethics and Social Responsibility

Today’s business requires social responsibility and excellent performance of companies. Ethical responsibility is the integrative element of social responsibility that is destined to satisfy costumers’ demands. In this context, there appear ethical problems of company’s business that can lower an ethical rating of a company and reduce its popularity among people (potential customers). Even multinational world companies have low ratings, and that is why are vulnerable to be blamed in unethical behavior.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Nestlà © Ethics and Social Responsibility – Report on Issues specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It seems to be necessary to examine ethics of one of the multinational world companies to understand its ethical criteria and rate them. Nestlà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s company can be one of the examples to be illustrated: â€Å"in 1977, Nestle got embroiled in a controvers y, when it was criticized for using unethical marketing practices endangering consumer health to promote its infant formula in developing nation†. [1] Since that time, this company was constantly criticized for unethical behavior and violation of costumers’ rights. The research in the sphere of Nestlà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s ethics shows that the company has lots of low-rated ethical criteria to be accused of. Genetically modified (GM) food would not be an asset for many costumers. According to Lawrence’s on-line article, this company has overcharged prices that can not be accessible for the low-income group of people in the world. For example, the cost of the produced â€Å"Pure Life†, bottled water, is outrageously high for the Asian people for whom potable water is extremely necessary.[2] Moreover, in the article, unfair labor practices were illustrated with examples. Coffee beans and cocoa in Nestlà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s company are the result of hard work of those who get them on African plantations. The author says that unfavorable working conditions and people’s exploitation with a child’s labor worsen the image of the company and proves its unethical attitude towards workers.[3] Ethical standards exist in each world organizations and nonconformity may affect badly on company’s reputation. Nestlà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s experience has proved that the company is lack of respecting of human rights and local regulations (laws for permission or prohibition of something) that can satisfy minimal demands of customers and workers. To be honest with the costumers is one of the unwritten ethical duties of all the companies. Maintenance of ethical standards satisfies costumers’ needs and makes them happy: â€Å"As â€Å"happiness† is the only thing that is good in and of itself, the utilitarian needs to know the details of a situation and its possible consequences in order to decide what is ethically right and wrong†[4]. The aut hor of the cited article is talking about ethical behavior in reference to consumers. Nestlà © does not label GM ingredients of the products; consequently, can customers give credence to the company? The ethical code of this company should correspond to individual human rights and ethical attitude to customers they want to satisfy. Meanwhile, the company sets itself up with well-thought publicity, and shows attractive pictures of the products as if they measure up all the consumer’s needs. If we proceed from the stated above the following table can show the ethical rating of Nestlà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s company, where one can see the ethical criteria and their possible consumers’ evaluations; A=excellent, B=good, C=adequate, D=requiring major improvement, F=failure.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More External image of the company in the world A Vended businessâ€℠¢ ethical principles B Respecting of human rights C Ethical attitude to customers D Ethical attitude to workers D High priced of necessary products D Not labeled GM food F The presence of â€Å"C†, â€Å"D† and â€Å"F† shows the low grade of the company (so five last criteria have bad ethical performance), and 3 â€Å"D† show that several point require major improvement (ethical criteria with â€Å"D†). Thus, I grade this company as D=require major improvement. Nestlà © is a low grade company and needs ethical performance improvement for the costumers, company’s workers, price strategy, and for the public weal. The company should satisfy customers’ needs. Such principles like â€Å"do not harm† and â€Å"do more good† should be taken into consideration here; it should follow the human rights and embody ethical attitude in labeled ingredients (especially, with GM) of their products, favorable working condit ions and fair prices for essential products. If such multinational world companies like Nestlà © do not change their ethical image, human health may be affected, and distrust of customers in the whole world may be developed. Works Cited Casillas, Daisy. â€Å"No More Water Wonderlands†. 2010: n.pag. Web. Lawrence. â€Å"Ethical Dilemma in Today’s Business†. N.d.: n. pag. Web. Footnotes Lawrence. â€Å"Ethical Dilemma in Today’s Business†. N.d., 3 Lawrence. â€Å"Ethical Dilemma in Today’s Business†. N.d., 5 Lawrence. â€Å"Ethical Dilemma in Today’s Business†. N.d., 7 Casillas, Daisy. â€Å"No More Water Wonderlands†. 2010. This report on Nestlà © Ethics and Social Responsibility – Report on Issues was written and submitted by user Jaqueline E. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Dr. caligari layers or meaning essays

Dr. caligari layers or meaning essays The meanings of "The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari" are numerous. It is a film with layers that keep peeling away and never come to an end, similar to the conclusion of the film. There is no pit, your mind keeps going, the layers keep coming. You are left with questions; what did this film mean explicitly, implicitly, symptomatically, and referentially? Also quite undeniably, this film more than an illusion. A state of indecisiveness jumbles your mind and the feeling of naivete comes over you. Dr. Caligari strategically tricks Francis as well as myself into believing his innocence, which in the end is left unanswered completely but leaning toward wrong. A man named Francis relates a story about his best friend Alan and his fiance Jane. Alan takes him to a fair where they meet Dr. Caligari, who exhibits a somnambulist, Cesare, that can predict the future. When Alan asks how long he has to live, Cesare says he has until dawn. The prophecy comes to pass, as Alan is murdered, and Cesare is a prime suspect. Cesare creeps into Jane's bedroom and abducts her, running from the townspeople and finally dying of exhaustion. Meanwhile, the police discover a dummy in Cesare's cabinet, while Caligari flees. Francis tracks Caligari to a mental asylum. He is the director! Implicitly the film implies that the world around might seem fine, normal, but in fact below the surface there is a world of corruption and deceit. The film was made when Hitler and the nazi's where coming into power and taking over the country, influencing the germans significantly on his idea of the perfect german, obviously promoting anti-semitism. It is possible that this film implies the question of Hitler's innocence in the nazi german minds. It is possible that Dr. Caligari is implied to represent Hitler. In which Cesare, the somnambulist, represent the nazi's under Hitler's command who conduct murders wrongly for the sick minded manipulator. In the film...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

List of Phrases Shakespeare Invented

List of Phrases Shakespeare Invented Four centuries after his death, we are still using Shakespeares phrases in our everyday speech. This list of phrases Shakespeare invented is a  testament that the Bard  has had a huge influence on the English language. Some people today reading Shakespeare for the first time complain that the language is difficult to understand, yet we are still using hundreds of words and phrases coined by him in our everyday conversation. You have probably quoted Shakespeare thousands of times without realizing it. If your homework gets you â€Å"in a pickle,† your friends have you â€Å"in stitches,† or your guests â€Å"eat you out of house and home,† then you’re quoting Shakespeare. The Most Popular Shakespearean Phrases A laughing stock (The Merry Wives of Windsor)A sorry sight (Macbeth)As dead as a doornail (Henry VI)Eaten out of house and home (Henry V, Part 2)Fair play (The Tempest)I will wear my heart upon my sleeve (Othello)In a pickle (The Tempest)In stitches (Twelfth Night)In the twinkling of an eye (The Merchant Of Venice)Mums the word (Henry VI, Part 2)Neither here nor there (Othello)Send him packing (Henry IV)Set your teeth on edge (Henry IV)Theres method in my madness (Hamlet)Too much of a good thing (As You Like It)Vanish into thin air (Othello) Origins and Legacy In many cases, scholars do not know if Shakespeare actually invented these phrases or if they were already in use during his lifetime. In fact, it is almost impossible to identify when a word or phrase was first used, but Shakespeare’s plays often provide the earliest citation. Shakespeare was writing for the mass audience, and his plays were incredibly popular in his own lifetime ... popular enough to enable him to perform for  Queen Elizabeth I and to retire a wealthy gentleman. It is unsurprising therefore that many phrases from his plays stuck in the popular consciousness and subsequently embedded themselves into everyday language. In many ways, it is like a catchphrase from a popular television show becoming part of everyday speech. Shakespeare was, after all, in the business of mass entertainment. In his day, the theater was the most effective way to entertain and communicate with large audiences. Language changes and evolves over time, so the original meanings may have been lost to language. Changing Meanings Over time, many of the original meanings behind Shakespeares words have evolved. For example, the phrase sweets to the sweet from Hamlet has since become a commonly used romantic phrase. In the original play, the line is uttered by Hamlet’s mother as she scatters funeral flowers across Ophelia’s grave in Act 5, Scene 1: Queen: (Scattering flowers) Sweets to the sweet, farewell!I hopd thou shouldst have been my Hamlets wife:I thought thy bride-bed to have deckd, sweet maid,And not have strewd thy grave. This passage hardly shares the romantic sentiment in today’s use of the phrase. Shakespeare’s writing lives on in today’s language, culture, and literary traditions because his influence (and the influence of the ​Renaissance) became an essential building block in the development of the English language. His writing is so deeply ingrained in the culture that it is impossible to imagine modern literature without his influence.